Publications

What is a Publication?
203 Publications visible to you, out of a total of 203

Abstract (Expand)

Fungal infections caused by the ancient lineage Mucorales are emerging and increasingly reported in humans. Comprehensive surveys on promising attributes from a multitude of possible virulence factors are limited and so far, focused on Mucor and Rhizopus. This study addresses a systematic approach to monitor phagocytosis after physical and enzymatic modification of the outer spore wall of Lichtheimia corymbifera, one of the major causative agents of mucormycosis. Episporic modifications were performed and their consequences on phagocytosis, intracellular survival and virulence by murine alveolar macrophages and in an invertebrate infection model were elucidated. While depletion of lipids did not affect the phagocytosis of both strains, delipidation led to attenuation of LCA strain but appears to be dispensable for infection with LCV strain in the settings used in this study. Combined glucano-proteolytic treatment was necessary to achieve a significant decrease of virulence of the LCV strain in Galleria mellonella during maintenance of the full potential for spore germination as shown by a novel automated germination assay. Proteolytic and glucanolytic treatments largely increased phagocytosis compared to alive resting and swollen spores. Whilst resting spores barely (1-2%) fuse to lysosomes after invagination in to phagosomes, spore trypsinization led to a 10-fold increase of phagolysosomal fusion as measured by intracellular acidification. This is the first report of a polyphasic measurement of the consequences of episporic modification of a mucormycotic pathogen in spore germination, spore surface ultrastructure, phagocytosis, stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), phagolysosomal fusion and intracellular acidification, apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and virulence.

Authors: M. I. A. Hassan, M. Keller, M. Hillger, U. Binder, S. Reuter, K. Herold, A. Telagathoti, H. M. Dahse, S. Wicht, N. Trinks, S. Nietzsche, T. Deckert-Gaudig, V. Deckert, R. Mrowka, U. Terpitz, H. Peter Saluz, K. Voigt

Date Published: 18th Feb 2021

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Murine infection models are widely used to study systemic candidiasis caused by C. albicans. Whole-blood models can help to elucidate host-pathogens interactions and have been used for several Candida species in human blood. We adapted the human whole-blood model to murine blood. Unlike human blood, murine blood was unable to reduce fungal burden and more substantial filamentation of C. albicans was observed. This coincided with less fungal association with leukocytes, especially neutrophils. The lower neutrophil number in murine blood only partially explains insufficient infection and filamentation control, as spiking with murine neutrophils had only limited effects on fungal killing. Furthermore, increased fungal survival is not mediated by enhanced filamentation, as a filament-deficient mutant was likewise not eliminated. We also observed host-dependent differences for interaction of platelets with C. albicans, showing enhanced platelet aggregation, adhesion and activation in murine blood. For human blood, opsonization was shown to decrease platelet interaction suggesting that complement factors interfere with fungus-to-platelet binding. Our results reveal substantial differences between murine and human whole-blood models infected with C. albicans and thereby demonstrate limitations in the translatability of this ex vivo model between hosts.

Authors: S. Machata, S. Sreekantapuram, K. Hunniger, O. Kurzai, C. Dunker, K. Schubert, W. Kruger, B. Schulze-Richter, C. Speth, G. Rambach, I. D. Jacobsen

Date Published: 1st Feb 2021

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

The PspC and Hic proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae are some of the most variable microbial immune evasion proteins identified to date. Due to structural similarities and conserved binding profiles, it was assumed for a long time that these pneumococcal surface proteins represent a protein family comprised of eleven subgroups. Recently, however, the evaluation of more proteins revealed a greater diversity of individual proteins. In contrast to previous assumptions a pattern evaluation of six PspC and five Hic variants, each representing one of the previously defined subgroups, revealed distinct structural and likely functionally regions of the proteins, and identified nine new domains and new domain alternates. Several domains are unique to PspC and Hic variants, while other domains are also present in other virulence factors encoded by pneumococci and other bacterial pathogens. This knowledge improved pattern evaluation at the level of full-length proteins, allowed a sequence comparison at the domain level and identified domains with a modular composition. This novel strategy increased understanding of individual proteins variability and modular domain composition, enabled a structural and functional characterization at the domain level and furthermore revealed substantial structural differences between PspC and Hic proteins. Given the exceptional genomic diversity of the multifunctional PspC and Hic proteins a detailed structural and functional evaluation need to be performed at the strain level. Such knowledge will also be useful for molecular strain typing and characterizing PspC and Hic proteins from new clinical S. pneumoniae strains.

Authors: S. Du, C. Vilhena, S. King, A. Sahagun-Ruiz, S. Hammerschmidt, C. Skerka, P. F. Zipfel

Date Published: 18th Jan 2021

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Gliotoxin and related epidithiodiketopiperazines (ETP) from diverse fungi feature highly functionalized hydroindole scaffolds with an array of medicinally and ecologically relevant activities. Mutation analysis, heterologous reconstitution, and biotransformation experiments revealed that a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (GliF) from the human-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus plays a key role in the formation of the complex heterocycle. In vitro assays using a biosynthetic precursor from a blocked mutant showed that GliF is specific to ETPs and catalyzes an unprecedented heterocyclization reaction that cannot be emulated with current synthetic methods. In silico analyses indicate that this rare biotransformation takes place in related ETP biosynthetic pathways.

Authors: D. H. Scharf, P. Chankhamjon, K. Scherlach, J. Dworschak, T. Heinekamp, M. Roth, A. A. Brakhage, C. Hertweck

Date Published: 15th Jan 2021

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Investigating metabolic functional capability of a human gut microbiome enables the quantification of microbiome changes, which can cause a phenotypic change of host physiology and disease. One possible way to estimate the functional capability of a microbial community is through inferring metagenomic content from 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genome-scale models (GEMs) can be used as scaffold for functional estimation analysis at a systematic level, however up to date, there is no integrative toolbox based on GEMs for uncovering metabolic functions. Here, we developed the MetGEMs (metagenome-scale models) toolbox, an open-source application for inferring metabolic functions from 16S rRNA gene sequences to facilitate the study of the human gut microbiome by the wider scientific community. The developed toolbox was validated using shotgun metagenomic data and shown to be superior in predicting functional composition in human clinical samples compared to existing state-of-the-art tools. Therefore, the MetGEMs toolbox was subsequently applied for annotating putative enzyme functions and metabolic routes related in human disease using atopic dermatitis as a case study.

Authors: P. Patumcharoenpol, M. Nakphaichit, G. Panagiotou, A. Senavonge, N. Suratannon, W. Vongsangnak

Date Published: 6th Jan 2021

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus are of particular interest for biotechnological applications due to their natural capacity to secrete carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) that target plant biomass. The presence of easily metabolizable sugars such as glucose, whose concentrations increase during plant biomass hydrolysis, results in the repression of CAZy-encoding genes in a process known as carbon catabolite repression (CCR), which is undesired for the purpose of large-scale enzyme production. To date, the C2H2 transcription factor CreA has been described as the major CC repressor in Aspergillus spp., although little is known about the role of posttranslational modifications in this process. In this work, phosphorylation sites were identified by mass spectrometry on Aspergillus nidulans CreA, and subsequently, the previously identified but uncharacterized site S262, the characterized site S319, and the newly identified sites S268 and T308 were chosen to be mutated to nonphosphorylatable residues before their effect on CCR was investigated. Sites S262, S268, and T308 are important for CreA protein accumulation and cellular localization, DNA binding, and repression of enzyme activities. In agreement with a previous study, site S319 was not important for several here-tested phenotypes but is key for CreA degradation and induction of enzyme activities. All sites were shown to be important for glycogen and trehalose metabolism. This study highlights the importance of CreA phosphorylation sites for the regulation of CCR. These sites are interesting targets for biotechnological strain engineering without the need to delete essential genes, which could result in undesired side effects.IMPORTANCE In filamentous fungi, the transcription factor CreA controls carbohydrate metabolism through the regulation of genes encoding enzymes required for the use of alternative carbon sources. In this work, phosphorylation sites were identified on Aspergillus nidulans CreA, and subsequently, the two newly identified sites S268 and T308, the previously identified but uncharacterized site S262, and the previously characterized site S319 were chosen to be mutated to nonphosphorylatable residues before their effect on CCR was characterized. Sites S262, S268, and T308 are important for CreA protein accumulation and cellular localization, DNA binding, and repression of enzyme activities. In agreement with a previous study, site S319 is not important for several here-tested phenotypes but is key for CreA degradation and induction of enzyme activities. This work characterized novel CreA phosphorylation sites under carbon catabolite-repressing conditions and showed that they are crucial for CreA protein turnover, control of carbohydrate utilization, and biotechnologically relevant enzyme production.

Authors: L. J. de Assis, L. P. Silva, O. Bayram, P. Dowling, O. Kniemeyer, T. Kruger, A. A. Brakhage, Y. Chen, L. Dong, K. Tan, K. H. Wong, L. N. A. Ries, G. H. Goldman

Date Published: 5th Jan 2021

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular mechanisms of platelet activation and aggregation is of high interest for basic and clinical hemostasis and thrombosis research. The central platelet protein interaction network is involved in major responses to exogenous factors. This is defined by systemsbiological pathway analysis as the central regulating signaling cascade of platelets (CC). RESULTS: The CC is systematically compared here between mouse and human and major differences were found. Genetic differences were analysed comparing orthologous human and mouse genes. We next analyzed different expression levels of mRNAs. Considering 4 mouse and 7 human high-quality proteome data sets, we identified then those major mRNA expression differences (81%) which were supported by proteome data. CC is conserved regarding genetic completeness, but we observed major differences in mRNA and protein levels between both species. Looking at central interactors, human PLCB2, MMP9, BDNF, ITPR3 and SLC25A6 (always Entrez notation) show absence in all murine datasets. CC interactors GNG12, PRKCE and ADCY9 occur only in mice. Looking at the common proteins, TLN1, CALM3, PRKCB, APP, SOD2 and TIMP1 are higher abundant in human, whereas RASGRP2, ITGB2, MYL9, EIF4EBP1, ADAM17, ARRB2, CD9 and ZYX are higher abundant in mouse. Pivotal kinase SRC shows different regulation on mRNA and protein level as well as ADP receptor P2RY12. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight species-specific differences in platelet signaling and points of specific fine-tuning in human platelets as well as murine-specific signaling differences.

Authors: J. Balkenhol, K. V. Kaltdorf, E. Mammadova-Bach, A. Braun, B. Nieswandt, M. Dittrich, T. Dandekar

Date Published: 22nd Dec 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Candida albicans is a leading cause of life-threatening hospital-acquired infections and can lead to Candidemia with sepsis-like symptoms and high mortality rates. We reconstructed a genome-scale C. albicans metabolic model to investigate bacterial-fungal metabolic interactions in the gut as determinants of fungal abundance. We optimized the predictive capacity of our model using wild type and mutant C. albicans growth data and used it for in silico metabolic interaction predictions. Our analysis of more than 900 paired fungal-bacterial metabolic models predicted key gut bacterial species modulating C. albicans colonization levels. Among the studied microbes, Alistipes putredinis was predicted to negatively affect C. albicans levels. We confirmed these findings by metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 24 human subjects and by fungal growth experiments in bacterial spent media. Furthermore, our pairwise simulations guided us to specific metabolites with promoting or inhibitory effect to the fungus when exposed in defined media under carbon and nitrogen limitation. Our study demonstrates that in silico metabolic prediction can lead to the identification of gut microbiome features that can significantly affect potentially harmful levels of C. albicans.

Authors: M. H. Mirhakkak, S. Schauble, T. E. Klassert, S. Brunke, P. Brandt, D. Loos, R. V. Uribe, F. Senne de Oliveira Lino, Y. Ni, S. Vylkova, H. Slevogt, B. Hube, G. J. Weiss, M. O. A. Sommer, G. Panagiotou

Date Published: 15th Dec 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Sepsis remains a major cause of death despite advances in medical care. Metabolic deregulation is an important component of the survival process. Metabolomic analysis allows profiling of critical metabolic functions with the potential to classify patient outcome. Our prospective longitudinal characterization of 33 septic and non-septic critically ill patients showed that deviations, independent of direction, in plasma levels of lipid metabolites were associated with sepsis mortality. We identified a coupling of metabolic signatures between liver and plasma of a rat sepsis model that allowed us to apply a human kinetic model of mitochondrial beta-oxidation to reveal differing enzyme concentrations for medium/short-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (elevated in survivors) and crotonase (elevated in non-survivors). These data suggest a need to monitor cellular energy metabolism beyond the available biomarkers. A loss of metabolic adaptation appears to be reflected by an inability to maintain cellular (fatty acid) metabolism within a "corridor of safety".

Authors: W. Khaliq, P. Grossmann, S. Neugebauer, A. Kleyman, R. Domizi, S. Calcinaro, D. Brealey, M. Graler, M. Kiehntopf, S. Schauble, M. Singer, G. Panagiotou, M. Bauer

Date Published: 11th Dec 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Burn wounds are highly susceptible sites for colonization and infection by bacteria and fungi. Large wound surface, impaired local immunity, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy support growth of opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, which may lead to invasive candidiasis. Currently, it remains unknown whether depressed host defenses or fungal virulence drive the progression of burn wound candidiasis. Here we established an ex vivo burn wound model, where wounds were inflicted by applying preheated soldering iron to human skin explants, resulting in highly reproducible deep second-degree burn wounds. Eschar removal by debridement allowed for deeper C. albicans penetration into the burned tissue associated with prominent filamentation. Active migration of resident tissue neutrophils towards the damaged tissue and release of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta accompanied the burn. The neutrophil recruitment was further increased upon supplementation of the model with fresh immune cells. Wound area and depth decreased over time, indicating healing of the damaged tissue. Importantly, prominent neutrophil presence at the infected site correlated to the limited penetration of C. albicans into the burned tissue. Altogether, we established a reproducible burn wound model of candidiasis using ex vivo human skin explants, where immune responses actively control the progression of infection and promote tissue healing.

Authors: C. von Muller, F. Bulman, L. Wagner, D. Rosenberger, A. Marolda, O. Kurzai, P. Eissmann, I. D. Jacobsen, B. Perner, P. Hemmerich, S. Vylkova

Date Published: 11th Dec 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Powered by
(v.1.13.4)
Copyright © 2008 - 2023 The University of Manchester and HITS gGmbH