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203 Publications visible to you, out of a total of 203

Abstract (Expand)

Phagosomes must maintain membrane integrity to exert their microbicidal function. Some microorganisms, however, survive and grow within phagosomes. In such instances, phagosomes must expand to avoid rupture and microbial escape. We studied whether phagosomes regulate their size to preserve integrity during infection with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Phagosomes release calcium as C. albicans hyphae elongate, inducing lysosome recruitment and insertion, thereby increasing the phagosomal surface area. As hyphae grow, the expanding phagosome consumes the majority of free lysosomes. Simultaneously, lysosome biosynthesis is stimulated by activation of TFEB, a transcriptional regulator of lysosomal biogenesis. Preventing lysosomal insertion causes phagosomal rupture, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1beta secretion and host-cell death. Whole-genome transcriptomic analysis demonstrate that stress responses elicited in C. albicans upon engulfment are reversed if phagosome expansion is prevented. Our findings reveal a mechanism whereby phagosomes maintain integrity while expanding, ensuring that growing pathogens remain entrapped within this microbicidal compartment.

Authors: J. Westman, G. F. W. Walpole, L. Kasper, B. Y. Xue, O. Elshafee, B. Hube, S. Grinstein

Date Published: 9th Dec 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Antibiotic resistance is an increasing threat to human health. In the case of Aspergillus fumigatus, which is both an environmental saprobe and an opportunistic human fungal pathogen, resistance is suggested to arise from fungicide use in agriculture, as the azoles used for plant protection share the same molecular target as the frontline antifungals used clinically. However, limiting azole fungicide use on crop fields to preserve their activity for clinical use could threaten the global food supply via a reduction in yield. In this study, we clarify the link between azole fungicide use on crop fields and resistance in a prototypical human pathogen through systematic soil sampling on farms in Germany and surveying fields before and after fungicide application. We observed a reduction in the abundance of A. fumigatus on fields following fungicide treatment in 2017, a finding that was not observed on an organic control field with only natural plant protection agents applied. However, this finding was less pronounced during our 2018 sampling, indicating that the impact of fungicides on A. fumigatus population size is variable and influenced by additional factors. The overall resistance frequency among agricultural isolates is low, with only 1 to 3% of isolates from 2016 to 2018 displaying resistance to medical azoles. Isolates collected after the growing season and azole exposure show a subtle but consistent decrease in susceptibility to medical and agricultural azoles. Whole-genome sequencing indicates that, despite the alterations in antifungal susceptibility, fungicide application does not significantly affect the population structure and genetic diversity of A. fumigatus in fields. Given the low observed resistance rate among agricultural isolates as well the lack of genomic impact following azole application, we do not find evidence that azole use on crops is significantly driving resistance in A. fumigatus in this context.IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance is an increasing threat to human health. In the case of Aspergillus fumigatus, which is an environmental fungus that also causes life-threatening infections in humans, antimicrobial resistance is suggested to arise from fungicide use in agriculture, as the chemicals used for plant protection are almost identical to the antifungals used clinically. However, removing azole fungicides from crop fields threatens the global food supply via a reduction in yield. In this study, we survey crop fields before and after fungicide application. We find a low overall azole resistance rate among agricultural isolates, as well as a lack of genomic and population impact following fungicide application, leading us to conclude azole use on crops does not significantly contribute to resistance in A. fumigatus.

Authors: A. E. Barber, J. Riedel, T. Sae-Ong, K. Kang, W. Brabetz, G. Panagiotou, H. B. Deising, O. Kurzai

Date Published: 24th Nov 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans. It exists as a commensal in the oral cavity, gut or genital tract of most individuals, constrained by the local microbiota, epithelial barriers and immune defences. Their perturbation can lead to fungal outgrowth and the development of mucosal infections such as oropharyngeal or vulvovaginal candidiasis, and patients with compromised immunity are susceptible to life-threatening systemic infections. The importance of the interplay between fungus, host and microbiota in driving the transition from C. albicans commensalism to pathogenicity is widely appreciated. However, the complexity of these interactions, and the significant impact of fungal, host and microbiota variability upon disease severity and outcome, are less well understood. Therefore, we summarise the features of the fungus that promote infection, and how genetic variation between clinical isolates influences pathogenicity. We discuss antifungal immunity, how this differs between mucosae, and how individual variation influences a person's susceptibility to infection. Also, we describe factors that influence the composition of gut, oral and vaginal microbiotas, and how these affect fungal colonisation and antifungal immunity. We argue that a detailed understanding of these variables, which underlie fungal-host-microbiota interactions, will present opportunities for directed antifungal therapies that benefit vulnerable patients.

Authors: C. d'Enfert, A. K. Kaune, L. R. Alaban, S. Chakraborty, N. Cole, M. Delavy, D. Kosmala, B. Marsaux, R. Frois-Martins, M. Morelli, D. Rosati, M. Valentine, Z. Xie, Y. Emritloll, P. A. Warn, F. Bequet, M. E. Bougnoux, S. Bornes, M. S. Gresnigt, B. Hube, I. D. Jacobsen, M. Legrand, S. Leibundgut-Landmann, C. Manichanh, C. A. Munro, M. G. Netea, K. Queiroz, K. Roget, V. Thomas, C. Thoral, P. Van den Abbeele, A. W. Walker, A. J. P. Brown

Date Published: 24th Nov 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is routinely applied to study diverse biological processes; however, when performed separately on interacting organisms, systemic noise intrinsic to RNA extraction, library preparation, and sequencing hampers the identification of cross-species interaction nodes. Here, we develop triple RNA-seq to simultaneously detect transcriptomes of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) infected with the frequently co-occurring pulmonary pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and human cytomegalovirus (CMV). Comparing expression patterns after co-infection with those after single infections, our data reveal synergistic effects and mutual interferences between host responses to the two pathogens. For example, CMV attenuates the fungus-mediated activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines through NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) cascades, while A. fumigatus impairs viral clearance by counteracting viral nucleic acid-induced activation of type I interferon signaling. Together, the analytical power of triple RNA-seq proposes molecular hubs in the differential moDC response to fungal/viral single infection or co-infection that contribute to our understanding of the etiology and, potentially, clearance of post-transplant infections.

Authors: B. Seelbinder, J. Wallstabe, L. Marischen, E. Weiss, S. Wurster, L. Page, C. Loffler, L. Bussemer, A. L. Schmitt, T. Wolf, J. Linde, L. Cicin-Sain, J. Becker, U. Kalinke, J. Vogel, G. Panagiotou, H. Einsele, A. J. Westermann, S. Schauble, J. Loeffler

Date Published: 17th Nov 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Most unicellular organisms live in communities and express different phenotypes. Many efforts have been made to study the population dynamics of such complex communities of cells, coexisting as well-coordinated units. Minimal models based on ordinary differential equations are powerful tools that can help us understand complex phenomena. They represent an appropriate compromise between complexity and tractability; they allow a profound and comprehensive analysis, which is still easy to understand. Evolutionary game theory is another powerful tool that can help us understand the costs and benefits of the decision a particular cell of a unicellular social organism takes when faced with the challenges of the biotic and abiotic environment. This work is a binocular view at the population dynamics of such a community through the objectives of minimal modelling and evolutionary game theory. We test the behaviour of the community of a unicellular social organism at three levels of antibiotic stress. Even in the absence of the antibiotic, spikes in the fraction of resistant cells can be observed indicating the importance of bet hedging. At moderate level of antibiotic stress, we witness cyclic dynamics reminiscent of the renowned rock-paper-scissors game. At a very high level, the resistant type of strategy is the most favourable.

Authors: R. Garde, J. Ewald, A. T. Kovacs, S. Schuster

Date Published: 3rd Nov 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a severe infection that is difficult to diagnose due to the ubiquitous presence of fungal spores, the underlying diseases of risk patients, and limitations of currently available markers. In this study, we performed a comprehensive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based identification of host and fungal proteins expressed during IPA in mice and humans. The proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage samples of individual IPA and control cases allowed the description of common host factors that had significantly increased abundance in both infected animals and IPA patients compared to their controls. Although increased levels of these individual host proteins might not be sufficient to distinguish bacterial from fungal infection, a combination of these markers might be beneficial to improve diagnosis. We also identified 16 fungal proteins that were specifically detected during infection and may be valuable candidates for biomarker evaluation.

Authors: S. Machata, M. M. Muller, R. Lehmann, P. Sieber, G. Panagiotou, A. Carvalho, C. Cunha, K. Lagrou, J. Maertens, H. Slevogt, I. D. Jacobsen

Date Published: 12th Oct 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Only four species, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis, together account for about 90% of all Candida bloodstream infections and are among the most common causes of invasive fungal infections of humans. However, virulence potential varies among these species, and the phylogenetic tree reveals that their pathogenicity may have emerged several times independently during evolution. We therefore tested these four species in a human whole-blood infection model to determine, via comprehensive dual-species RNA-sequencing analyses, which fungal infection strategies are conserved and which are recent evolutionary developments. The ex vivo infection progressed from initial immune cell interactions to nearly complete killing of all fungal cells. During the course of infection, we characterized important parameters of pathogen-host interactions, such as fungal survival, types of interacting immune cells, and cytokine release. On the transcriptional level, we obtained a predominantly uniform and species-independent human response governed by a strong upregulation of proinflammatory processes, which was downregulated at later time points after most of the fungal cells were killed. In stark contrast, we observed that the different fungal species pursued predominantly individual strategies and showed significantly different global transcriptome patterns. Among other findings, our functional analyses revealed that the fungal species relied on different metabolic pathways and virulence factors to survive the host-imposed stress. These data show that adaptation of Candida species as a response to the host is not a phylogenetic trait, but rather has likely evolved independently as a prerequisite to cause human infections.IMPORTANCE To ensure their survival, pathogens have to adapt immediately to new environments in their hosts, for example, during the transition from the gut to the bloodstream. Here, we investigated the basis of this adaptation in a group of fungal species which are among the most common causes of hospital-acquired infections, the Candida species. On the basis of a human whole-blood infection model, we studied which genes and processes are active over the course of an infection in both the host and four different Candida pathogens. Remarkably, we found that, while the human host response during the early phase of infection is predominantly uniform, the pathogens pursue largely individual strategies and each one regulates genes involved in largely disparate processes in the blood. Our results reveal that C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis all have developed individual strategies for survival in the host. This indicates that their pathogenicity in humans has evolved several times independently and that genes which are central for survival in the host for one species may be irrelevant in another.

Authors: P. Kammer, S. McNamara, T. Wolf, T. Conrad, S. Allert, F. Gerwien, K. Hunniger, O. Kurzai, R. Guthke, B. Hube, J. Linde, S. Brunke

Date Published: 6th Oct 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Delayed natural killer (NK) cell reconstitution after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is associated with a higher risk of developing invasive aspergillosis. The interaction of NK cells with the human pathogen Aspergillus (A.) fumigatus is mediated by the fungal recognition receptor CD56, which is relocated to the fungal interface after contact. Blocking of CD56 signaling inhibits the fungal mediated chemokine secretion of MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES and reduces cell activation, indicating a functional role of CD56 in fungal recognition. We collected peripheral blood from recipients of an allograft at defined time points after alloSCT (day 60, 90, 120, 180). NK cells were isolated, directly challenged with live A. fumigatus germ tubes, and cell function was analyzed and compared to healthy age and gender-matched individuals. After alloSCT, NK cells displayed a higher percentage of CD56(bright)CD16(dim) cells throughout the time of blood collection. However, CD56 binding and relocalization to the fungal contact side were decreased. We were able to correlate this deficiency to the administration of corticosteroid therapy that further negatively influenced the secretion of MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES. As a consequence, the treatment of healthy NK cells ex vivo with corticosteroids abrogated chemokine secretion measured by multiplex immunoassay. Furthermore, we analyzed NK cells regarding their actin cytoskeleton by Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) and flow cytometry and demonstrate an actin dysfunction of NK cells shown by reduced F-actin content after fungal co-cultivation early after alloSCT. This dysfunction remains until 180 days post-alloSCT, concluding that further actin-dependent cellular processes may be negatively influenced after alloSCT. To investigate the molecular pathomechansism, we compared CD56 receptor mobility on the plasma membrane of healthy and alloSCT primary NK cells by single-molecule tracking. The results were very robust and reproducible between tested conditions which point to a different molecular mechanism and emphasize the importance of proper CD56 mobility.

Authors: E. Weiss, J. Schlegel, U. Terpitz, M. Weber, J. Linde, A. L. Schmitt, K. Hunniger, L. Marischen, F. Gamon, J. Bauer, C. Loffler, O. Kurzai, C. O. Morton, M. Sauer, H. Einsele, J. Loeffler

Date Published: 5th Oct 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

The complement system is part of the innate immune system and plays an important role in the host defense against infectious pathogens. One of the main effects is the opsonization of foreign invaders and subsequent uptake by phagocytosis. Due to the continuous default basal level of active complement molecules, a tight regulation is required to protect the body's own cells (self cells) from opsonization and from complement damage. A major complement regulator is Factor H, which is recruited from the fluid phase and attaches to cell surfaces where it effectively controls complement activation. Besides self cells, pathogens also have the ability to bind Factor H; they can thus escape opsonization and phagocytosis causing severe infections. In order to advance our understanding of the opsonization process at a quantitative level, we developed a mathematical model for the dynamics of the complement system-termed DynaCoSys model-that is based on ordinary differential equations for cell surface-bound molecules and on partial differential equations for concentration profiles of the fluid phase molecules in the environment of cells. This hybrid differential equation approach allows to model the complement cascade focusing on the role of active C3b in the fluid phase and on the cell surface as well as on its inactivation on the cell surface. The DynaCoSys model enables us to quantitatively predict the conditions under which Factor H mediated complement evasion occurs. Furthermore, investigating the quantitative impact of model parameters by a sensitivity analysis, we identify the driving processes of complement activation and regulation in both the self and non-self regime. The two regimes are defined by a critical Factor H concentration on the cell surface and we use the model to investigate the differential impact of complement model parameters on this threshold value. The dynamic modeling on the surface of pathogens are further relevant to understand pathophysiological situations where Factor H mutants and defective Factor H binding to target surfaces results in pathophysiology such as renal and retinal disease. In the future, this DynaCoSys model will be extended to also enable evaluating treatment strategies of complement-related diseases.

Authors: A. Tille, T. Lehnert, P. F. Zipfel, M. T. Figge

Date Published: 5th Oct 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic treatment has a well-established detrimental effect on the gut bacterial composition, but effects on the fungal community are less clear. Bacteria in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract may limit fungal colonization and invasion. Antibiotic drugs targeting bacteria are therefore seen as an important risk factor for fungal infections and induced allergies. However, antibiotic effects on gut bacterial-fungal interactions, including disruption and resilience of fungal community compositions, were not investigated in humans. We analysed stool samples collected from 14 healthy human participants over 3 months following a 6-day antibiotic administration. We integrated data from shotgun metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, and fungal ITS2 sequencing. RESULTS: While the bacterial community recovered mostly over 3 months post treatment, the fungal community was shifted from mutualism at baseline to competition. Half of the bacterial-fungal interactions present before drug intervention had disappeared 3 months later. During treatment, fungal abundances were associated with the expression of bacterial genes with functions for cell growth and repair. By extending the metagenomic species approach, we revealed bacterial strains inhibiting the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. We demonstrated in vitro how C. albicans pathogenicity and host cell damage might be controlled naturally in the human gut by bacterial metabolites such as propionate or 5-dodecenoate. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that antibacterial drugs have long-term influence on the human gut mycobiome. While bacterial communities recovered mostly 30-days post antibacterial treatment, the fungal community was shifted from mutualism towards competition. Video abstract.

Authors: B. Seelbinder, J. Chen, S. Brunke, R. Vazquez-Uribe, R. Santhaman, A. C. Meyer, F. S. de Oliveira Lino, K. F. Chan, D. Loos, L. Imamovic, C. C. Tsang, R. P. Lam, S. Sridhar, K. Kang, B. Hube, P. C. Woo, M. O. A. Sommer, G. Panagiotou

Date Published: 12th Sep 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

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