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16 Publications visible to you, out of a total of 16

Abstract (Expand)

Intestinal microbiota dysbiosis can initiate overgrowth of commensal Candida species - a major predisposing factor for disseminated candidiasis. Commensal bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus can antagonize Candida albicans pathogenicity. Here, we investigate the interplay between C. albicans, L. rhamnosus, and intestinal epithelial cells by integrating transcriptional and metabolic profiling, and reverse genetics. Untargeted metabolomics and in silico modelling indicate that intestinal epithelial cells foster bacterial growth metabolically, leading to bacterial production of antivirulence compounds. In addition, bacterial growth modifies the metabolic environment, including removal of C. albicans' favoured nutrient sources. This is accompanied by transcriptional and metabolic changes in C. albicans, including altered expression of virulence-related genes. Our results indicate that intestinal colonization with bacteria can antagonize C. albicans by reshaping the metabolic environment, forcing metabolic adaptations that reduce fungal pathogenicity.

Authors: R. Alonso-Roman, A. Last, M. H. Mirhakkak, J. L. Sprague, L. Moller, P. Grossmann, K. Graf, R. Gratz, S. Mogavero, S. Vylkova, G. Panagiotou, S. Schauble, B. Hube, M. S. Gresnigt

Date Published: 9th Jun 2022

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Protein kinases play a crucial role in regulating cellular processes such as growth, proliferation, environmental adaptation and stress responses. Serine-arginine (SR) protein kinases are highly conserved in eukaryotes and regulate fundamental processes such as constitutive and alternative splicing, mRNA processing and ion homeostasis. The Candida albicans genome encodes two (Sky1, Sky2) and the Candida glabrata genome has one homolog (Sky1) of the human SR protein kinase 1, but their functions have not yet been investigated. We used deletion strains of the corresponding genes in both fungi to study their cellular functions. C. glabrata and C. albicans strains lacking SKY1 exhibited higher resistance to osmotic stress and toxic polyamine concentrations, similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae sky1Delta mutants. Deletion of SKY2 in C. albicans resulted in impaired utilization of various dipeptides as the sole nitrogen source. Subsequent phosphoproteomic analysis identified the di- and tripeptide transporter Ptr22 as a potential Sky2 substrate. Sky2 seems to be involved in Ptr22 regulation since overexpression of PTR22 in the sky2Delta mutant restored the ability to grow on dipeptides and made the cells more susceptible to the dipeptide antifungals Polyoxin D and Nikkomycin Z. Altogether, our results demonstrate that C. albicans and C. glabrata Sky1 protein kinases are functionally similar to Sky1 in S. cerevisiae, whereas C. albicans Sky2, a unique kinase of the CTG clade, likely regulates dipeptide uptake via Ptr22.

Authors: P. Brandt, F. Gerwien, L. Wagner, T. Kruger, B. Ramirez-Zavala, M. H. Mirhakkak, S. Schauble, O. Kniemeyer, G. Panagiotou, A. A. Brakhage, J. Morschhauser, S. Vylkova

Date Published: 23rd May 2022

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Investigating metabolic functional capability of a human gut microbiome enables the quantification of microbiome changes, which can cause a phenotypic change of host physiology and disease. One possible way to estimate the functional capability of a microbial community is through inferring metagenomic content from 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genome-scale models (GEMs) can be used as scaffold for functional estimation analysis at a systematic level, however up to date, there is no integrative toolbox based on GEMs for uncovering metabolic functions. Here, we developed the MetGEMs (metagenome-scale models) toolbox, an open-source application for inferring metabolic functions from 16S rRNA gene sequences to facilitate the study of the human gut microbiome by the wider scientific community. The developed toolbox was validated using shotgun metagenomic data and shown to be superior in predicting functional composition in human clinical samples compared to existing state-of-the-art tools. Therefore, the MetGEMs toolbox was subsequently applied for annotating putative enzyme functions and metabolic routes related in human disease using atopic dermatitis as a case study.

Authors: P. Patumcharoenpol, M. Nakphaichit, G. Panagiotou, A. Senavonge, N. Suratannon, W. Vongsangnak

Date Published: 6th Jan 2021

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Candida albicans is a leading cause of life-threatening hospital-acquired infections and can lead to Candidemia with sepsis-like symptoms and high mortality rates. We reconstructed a genome-scale C. albicans metabolic model to investigate bacterial-fungal metabolic interactions in the gut as determinants of fungal abundance. We optimized the predictive capacity of our model using wild type and mutant C. albicans growth data and used it for in silico metabolic interaction predictions. Our analysis of more than 900 paired fungal-bacterial metabolic models predicted key gut bacterial species modulating C. albicans colonization levels. Among the studied microbes, Alistipes putredinis was predicted to negatively affect C. albicans levels. We confirmed these findings by metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 24 human subjects and by fungal growth experiments in bacterial spent media. Furthermore, our pairwise simulations guided us to specific metabolites with promoting or inhibitory effect to the fungus when exposed in defined media under carbon and nitrogen limitation. Our study demonstrates that in silico metabolic prediction can lead to the identification of gut microbiome features that can significantly affect potentially harmful levels of C. albicans.

Authors: M. H. Mirhakkak, S. Schauble, T. E. Klassert, S. Brunke, P. Brandt, D. Loos, R. V. Uribe, F. Senne de Oliveira Lino, Y. Ni, S. Vylkova, H. Slevogt, B. Hube, G. J. Weiss, M. O. A. Sommer, G. Panagiotou

Date Published: 15th Dec 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Antibiotic resistance is an increasing threat to human health. In the case of Aspergillus fumigatus, which is both an environmental saprobe and an opportunistic human fungal pathogen, resistance is suggested to arise from fungicide use in agriculture, as the azoles used for plant protection share the same molecular target as the frontline antifungals used clinically. However, limiting azole fungicide use on crop fields to preserve their activity for clinical use could threaten the global food supply via a reduction in yield. In this study, we clarify the link between azole fungicide use on crop fields and resistance in a prototypical human pathogen through systematic soil sampling on farms in Germany and surveying fields before and after fungicide application. We observed a reduction in the abundance of A. fumigatus on fields following fungicide treatment in 2017, a finding that was not observed on an organic control field with only natural plant protection agents applied. However, this finding was less pronounced during our 2018 sampling, indicating that the impact of fungicides on A. fumigatus population size is variable and influenced by additional factors. The overall resistance frequency among agricultural isolates is low, with only 1 to 3% of isolates from 2016 to 2018 displaying resistance to medical azoles. Isolates collected after the growing season and azole exposure show a subtle but consistent decrease in susceptibility to medical and agricultural azoles. Whole-genome sequencing indicates that, despite the alterations in antifungal susceptibility, fungicide application does not significantly affect the population structure and genetic diversity of A. fumigatus in fields. Given the low observed resistance rate among agricultural isolates as well the lack of genomic impact following azole application, we do not find evidence that azole use on crops is significantly driving resistance in A. fumigatus in this context.IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance is an increasing threat to human health. In the case of Aspergillus fumigatus, which is an environmental fungus that also causes life-threatening infections in humans, antimicrobial resistance is suggested to arise from fungicide use in agriculture, as the chemicals used for plant protection are almost identical to the antifungals used clinically. However, removing azole fungicides from crop fields threatens the global food supply via a reduction in yield. In this study, we survey crop fields before and after fungicide application. We find a low overall azole resistance rate among agricultural isolates, as well as a lack of genomic and population impact following fungicide application, leading us to conclude azole use on crops does not significantly contribute to resistance in A. fumigatus.

Authors: A. E. Barber, J. Riedel, T. Sae-Ong, K. Kang, W. Brabetz, G. Panagiotou, H. B. Deising, O. Kurzai

Date Published: 24th Nov 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is routinely applied to study diverse biological processes; however, when performed separately on interacting organisms, systemic noise intrinsic to RNA extraction, library preparation, and sequencing hampers the identification of cross-species interaction nodes. Here, we develop triple RNA-seq to simultaneously detect transcriptomes of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) infected with the frequently co-occurring pulmonary pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and human cytomegalovirus (CMV). Comparing expression patterns after co-infection with those after single infections, our data reveal synergistic effects and mutual interferences between host responses to the two pathogens. For example, CMV attenuates the fungus-mediated activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines through NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) cascades, while A. fumigatus impairs viral clearance by counteracting viral nucleic acid-induced activation of type I interferon signaling. Together, the analytical power of triple RNA-seq proposes molecular hubs in the differential moDC response to fungal/viral single infection or co-infection that contribute to our understanding of the etiology and, potentially, clearance of post-transplant infections.

Authors: B. Seelbinder, J. Wallstabe, L. Marischen, E. Weiss, S. Wurster, L. Page, C. Loffler, L. Bussemer, A. L. Schmitt, T. Wolf, J. Linde, L. Cicin-Sain, J. Becker, U. Kalinke, J. Vogel, G. Panagiotou, H. Einsele, A. J. Westermann, S. Schauble, J. Loeffler

Date Published: 17th Nov 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic treatment has a well-established detrimental effect on the gut bacterial composition, but effects on the fungal community are less clear. Bacteria in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract may limit fungal colonization and invasion. Antibiotic drugs targeting bacteria are therefore seen as an important risk factor for fungal infections and induced allergies. However, antibiotic effects on gut bacterial-fungal interactions, including disruption and resilience of fungal community compositions, were not investigated in humans. We analysed stool samples collected from 14 healthy human participants over 3 months following a 6-day antibiotic administration. We integrated data from shotgun metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, and fungal ITS2 sequencing. RESULTS: While the bacterial community recovered mostly over 3 months post treatment, the fungal community was shifted from mutualism at baseline to competition. Half of the bacterial-fungal interactions present before drug intervention had disappeared 3 months later. During treatment, fungal abundances were associated with the expression of bacterial genes with functions for cell growth and repair. By extending the metagenomic species approach, we revealed bacterial strains inhibiting the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. We demonstrated in vitro how C. albicans pathogenicity and host cell damage might be controlled naturally in the human gut by bacterial metabolites such as propionate or 5-dodecenoate. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that antibacterial drugs have long-term influence on the human gut mycobiome. While bacterial communities recovered mostly 30-days post antibacterial treatment, the fungal community was shifted from mutualism towards competition. Video abstract.

Authors: B. Seelbinder, J. Chen, S. Brunke, R. Vazquez-Uribe, R. Santhaman, A. C. Meyer, F. S. de Oliveira Lino, K. F. Chan, D. Loos, L. Imamovic, C. C. Tsang, R. P. Lam, S. Sridhar, K. Kang, B. Hube, P. C. Woo, M. O. A. Sommer, G. Panagiotou

Date Published: 12th Sep 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Rhinovirus (RV) and influenza virus are the most frequently detected respiratory viruses among adult patients with community acquired pneumonia. Previous clinical studies have identified major differences in the clinical presentations and inflammatory or immune response during these infections. A systematic transcriptomic analysis directly comparing influenza and RV is lacking. Here, we sought to compare the transcriptomic response to these viral infections. Human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells were infected with contemporary clinical isolates of RV, influenza A virus (IAV), or influenza B virus (IBV). Host gene expression was determined using RNA-seq. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with respect to mock-infected cells were identified using the overlapping gene-set of four different statistical models. Transcriptomic analysis showed that RV-infected cells have a more blunted host response with fewer DEGs than IAV or IBV-infected cells. IFNL1 and CXCL10 were among the most upregulated DEGs during RV, IAV, and IBV infection. Other DEGs that were highly expressed for all 3 viruses were mainly genes related to type I or type III interferons (RSAD2, IDO1) and chemokines (CXCL11). Notably, ICAM5, a known receptor for enterovirus D68, was highly expressed during RV infection only. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) confirmed that pathways associated with interferon response, innate immunity, or regulation of inflammatory response, were most perturbed for all three viruses. Network analysis showed that steroid-related pathways were enriched. Taken together, our data using contemporary virus strains suggests that genes related to interferon and chemokine predominated the host response associated with RV, IAV, and IBV infection. Several highly expressed genes, especially ICAM5 which is preferentially-induced during RV infection, deserve further investigation.

Authors: T. K. Dissanayake, S. Schauble, M. H. Mirhakkak, W. L. Wu, A. C. Ng, C. C. Y. Yip, A. G. Lopez, T. Wolf, M. L. Yeung, K. H. Chan, K. Y. Yuen, G. Panagiotou, K. K. To

Date Published: 28th Aug 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Fungal spores and hyphal fragments play an important role as allergens in respiratory diseases. In this study, we performed trypsin shaving and secretome analyses to identify the surface-exposed proteins and secreted/shed proteins of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, respectively. We investigated the surface proteome under different conditions, including temperature variation and germination. We found that the surface proteome of resting A. fumigatus conidia is not static but instead unexpectedly dynamic, as evidenced by drastically different surface proteomes under different growth conditions. Knockouts of two abundant A. fumigatus surface proteins, ScwA and CweA, were found to function only in fine-tuning the cell wall stress response, implying that the conidial surface is very robust against perturbations. We then compared the surface proteome of A. fumigatus to other allergy-inducing molds, including Alternaria alternata, Penicillium rubens, and Cladosporium herbarum, and performed comparative proteomics on resting and swollen conidia, as well as secreted proteins from germinating conidia. We detected 125 protein ortholog groups, including 80 with putative catalytic activity, in the extracellular region of all four molds, and 42 nonorthologous proteins produced solely by A. fumigatus. Ultimately, this study highlights the dynamic nature of the A. fumigatus conidial surface and provides targets for future diagnostics and immunotherapy.

Authors: M. G. Blango, A. Pschibul, F. Rivieccio, T. Kruger, M. Rafiq, L. J. Jia, T. Zheng, M. Goldmann, V. Voltersen, J. Li, G. Panagiotou, O. Kniemeyer, A. A. Brakhage

Date Published: 1st May 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

The gut microbiota has the potential to influence the efficacy of cancer therapy. Here, we investigated the contribution of the intestinal microbiome on treatment outcomes in a heterogeneous cohort that included multiple cancer types to identify microbes with a global impact on immune response. Human gut metagenomic analysis revealed that responder patients had significantly higher microbial diversity and different microbiota compositions compared to non-responders. A machine-learning model was developed and validated in an independent cohort to predict treatment outcomes based on gut microbiota composition and functional repertoires of responders and non-responders. Specific species, Bacteroides ovatus and Bacteroides xylanisolvens, were positively correlated with treatment outcomes. Oral gavage of these responder bacteria significantly increased the efficacy of erlotinib and induced the expression of CXCL9 and IFN-gamma in a murine lung cancer model. These data suggest a predictable impact of specific constituents of the microbiota on tumor growth and cancer treatment outcomes with implications for both prognosis and therapy.

Authors: Y. Heshiki, R. Vazquez-Uribe, J. Li, Y. Ni, S. Quainoo, L. Imamovic, J. Li, M. Sorensen, B. K. C. Chow, G. J. Weiss, A. Xu, M. O. A. Sommer, G. Panagiotou

Date Published: 5th Mar 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

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