2 items tagged with 'Macrophages'.
Flotillin-Dependent Membrane Microdomains Are Required for Functional Phagolysosomes against Fungal Infections.
Lipid rafts form signaling platforms on biological membranes with incompletely characterized role in immune response to infection. Here we report that lipid-raft microdomains are essential components … of phagolysosomal membranes of macrophages and depend on flotillins. Genetic deletion of flotillins demonstrates that the assembly of both major defense complexes vATPase and NADPH oxidase requires membrane microdomains. Furthermore, we describe a virulence mechanism leading to dysregulation of membrane microdomains by melanized wild-type conidia of the important human-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus resulting in reduced phagolysosomal acidification. We show that phagolysosomes with ingested melanized conidia contain a reduced amount of free Ca(2+) ions and that inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin activity led to reduced lipid-raft formation. We identify a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human FLOT1 gene resulting in heightened susceptibility for invasive aspergillosis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Collectively, flotillin-dependent microdomains on the phagolysosomal membrane play an essential role in protective antifungal immunity.
Authors: F. Schmidt, A. Thywissen, M. Goldmann, C. Cunha, Z. Cseresnyes, H. Schmidt, M. Rafiq, S. Galiani, M. H. Graler, G. Chamilos, J. F. Lacerda, A. Jr Campos, C. Eggeling, Marc Thilo Figge, Thorsten Heinekamp, S. G. Filler, A. Carvalho, Axel Brakhage
Date Published: 18th Aug 2020
Journal: Cell Rep
PubMed ID: 32814035
Citation: Cell Rep. 2020 Aug 18;32(7):108017. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108017.
Created: 16th Feb 2021 at 16:12
Host-fungus interactions have gained a lot of interest in the past few decades, mainly due to an increasing number of fungal infections that are often associated with a high mortality rate in the absence … of effective therapies. These interactions can be studied at the genetic level or at the functional level via imaging. Here, we introduce a new image processing method that quantifies the interaction between host cells and fungal invaders, for example, alveolar macrophages and the conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus. The new technique relies on the information content of transmitted light bright field microscopy images, utilizing the Hessian matrix eigenvalues to distinguish between unstained macrophages and the background, as well as between macrophages and fungal conidia. The performance of the new algorithm was measured by comparing the results of our method with that of an alternative approach that was based on fluorescence images from the same dataset. The comparison shows that the new algorithm performs very similarly to the fluorescence-based version. Consequently, the new algorithm is able to segment and characterize unlabeled cells, thus reducing the time and expense that would be spent on the fluorescent labeling in preparation for phagocytosis assays. By extending the proposed method to the label-free segmentation of fungal conidia, we will be able to reduce the need for fluorescence-based imaging even further. Our approach should thus help to minimize the possible side effects of fluorescence labeling on biological functions. (c) 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
Authors: Z. Cseresnyes, Kaswara Kraibooj, Marc Thilo Figge
Date Published: 16th Sep 2017
Journal: Cytometry A
PubMed ID: 28914994
Citation: Cytometry A. 2018 Mar;93(3):346-356. doi: 10.1002/cyto.a.23201. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
Created: 16th Feb 2021 at 15:33