Evaluation of Aspergillus and Mucorales specific T-cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine signatures as biomarkers of environmental mold exposure.
Mold specific T-cells have been described as a supportive biomarker to monitor invasive mycoses and mold exposure. This study comparatively evaluated frequencies and cytokine profiles of Aspergillus … fumigatus and Mucorales reactive T-cells depending on environmental mold exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 35 healthy donors were stimulated with mycelial lysates of A. fumigatus and three human pathogenic Mucorales species. CD154(+) specific T-cells were quantified by flow cytometry. In a second cohort of 20 additional donors, flow cytometry was complemented by 13-plex cytokine assays. Mold exposure of the subjects was determined using a previously established questionnaire. Highly exposed subjects exhibited significantly greater CD154(+)A. fumigatus and Mucorales specific naive and memory T-helper cell frequencies. Significant correlation (r = 0.48 - 0.79) was found between A. fumigatus and Mucorales specific T-cell numbers. Logistic regression analyses revealed that combined analysis of mold specific T-cell frequencies and selected cytokine markers (A. fumigatus: IL-5 and TNF-alpha, R. arrhizus: IL-17A and IL-13) significantly improves classification performance, resulting in 75-90 % predictive power using 10-fold cross-validation. In conclusion, mold specific T-cell frequencies and their cytokine signatures offer promising potential in the assessment of environmental mold exposure. The cytokines identified in this pilot study should be validated in the clinical setting, e. g. in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Authors: L. Page, P. Weis, T. Muller, M. Dittrich, M. Lazariotou, M. Dragan, A. M. Waaga-Gasser, J. Helm, T. Dandekar, H. Einsele, J. Loffler, A. J. Ullmann, S. Wurster
Date Published: 12th Sep 2018
Journal: Int J Med Microbiol