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Abstract (Expand)

Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus are of particular interest for biotechnological applications due to their natural capacity to secrete carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) that target plant biomass. The presence of easily metabolizable sugars such as glucose, whose concentrations increase during plant biomass hydrolysis, results in the repression of CAZy-encoding genes in a process known as carbon catabolite repression (CCR), which is undesired for the purpose of large-scale enzyme production. To date, the C2H2 transcription factor CreA has been described as the major CC repressor in Aspergillus spp., although little is known about the role of posttranslational modifications in this process. In this work, phosphorylation sites were identified by mass spectrometry on Aspergillus nidulans CreA, and subsequently, the previously identified but uncharacterized site S262, the characterized site S319, and the newly identified sites S268 and T308 were chosen to be mutated to nonphosphorylatable residues before their effect on CCR was investigated. Sites S262, S268, and T308 are important for CreA protein accumulation and cellular localization, DNA binding, and repression of enzyme activities. In agreement with a previous study, site S319 was not important for several here-tested phenotypes but is key for CreA degradation and induction of enzyme activities. All sites were shown to be important for glycogen and trehalose metabolism. This study highlights the importance of CreA phosphorylation sites for the regulation of CCR. These sites are interesting targets for biotechnological strain engineering without the need to delete essential genes, which could result in undesired side effects.IMPORTANCE In filamentous fungi, the transcription factor CreA controls carbohydrate metabolism through the regulation of genes encoding enzymes required for the use of alternative carbon sources. In this work, phosphorylation sites were identified on Aspergillus nidulans CreA, and subsequently, the two newly identified sites S268 and T308, the previously identified but uncharacterized site S262, and the previously characterized site S319 were chosen to be mutated to nonphosphorylatable residues before their effect on CCR was characterized. Sites S262, S268, and T308 are important for CreA protein accumulation and cellular localization, DNA binding, and repression of enzyme activities. In agreement with a previous study, site S319 is not important for several here-tested phenotypes but is key for CreA degradation and induction of enzyme activities. This work characterized novel CreA phosphorylation sites under carbon catabolite-repressing conditions and showed that they are crucial for CreA protein turnover, control of carbohydrate utilization, and biotechnologically relevant enzyme production.

Authors: L. J. de Assis, L. P. Silva, O. Bayram, P. Dowling, O. Kniemeyer, T. Kruger, A. A. Brakhage, Y. Chen, L. Dong, K. Tan, K. H. Wong, L. N. A. Ries, G. H. Goldman

Date Published: 5th Jan 2021

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Patients suffering from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are susceptible to deadly secondary fungal infections such as COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis and COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. Despite this clinical observation, direct experimental evidence for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-driven alterations of antifungal immunity is scarce. Using an ex-vivo whole blood stimulation assay, we challenged blood from twelve COVID-19 patients with Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus arrhizus antigens and studied the expression of activation, maturation, and exhaustion markers, as well as cytokine secretion. Compared to healthy controls, T-helper cells from COVID-19 patients displayed increased expression levels of the exhaustion marker PD-1 and weakened A. fumigatus- and R. arrhizus-induced activation. While baseline secretion of proinflammatory cytokines was massively elevated, whole blood from COVID-19 patients elicited diminished release of T-cellular (e.g., IFN-gamma, IL-2) and innate immune cell-derived (e.g., CXCL9, CXCL10) cytokines in response to A. fumigatus and R. arrhizus antigens. Additionally, samples from COVID-19 patients showed deficient granulocyte activation by mold antigens and reduced fungal killing capacity of neutrophils. These features of weakened anti-mold immune responses were largely decoupled from COVID-19 severity, the time elapsed since diagnosis of COVID-19, and recent corticosteroid uptake, suggesting that impaired anti-mold defense is a common denominator of the underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection. Taken together, these results expand our understanding of the immune predisposition to post-viral mold infections and could inform future studies of immunotherapeutic strategies to prevent and treat fungal superinfections in COVID-19 patients.

Authors: B. Tappe, C. D. Lauruschkat, L. Strobel, J. Pantaleon Garcia, O. Kurzai, S. Rebhan, S. Kraus, E. Pfeuffer-Jovic, L. Bussemer, L. Possler, M. Held, K. Hunniger, O. Kniemeyer, S. Schauble, A. A. Brakhage, G. Panagiotou, P. L. White, H. Einsele, J. Loffler, S. Wurster

Date Published: 2nd Sep 2022

Publication Type: Journal

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