Abstract (Expand)

Murine infection models are widely used to study systemic candidiasis caused by C. albicans. Whole-blood models can help to elucidate host-pathogens interactions and have been used for several Candida species in human blood. We adapted the human whole-blood model to murine blood. Unlike human blood, murine blood was unable to reduce fungal burden and more substantial filamentation of C. albicans was observed. This coincided with less fungal association with leukocytes, especially neutrophils. The lower neutrophil number in murine blood only partially explains insufficient infection and filamentation control, as spiking with murine neutrophils had only limited effects on fungal killing. Furthermore, increased fungal survival is not mediated by enhanced filamentation, as a filament-deficient mutant was likewise not eliminated. We also observed host-dependent differences for interaction of platelets with C. albicans, showing enhanced platelet aggregation, adhesion and activation in murine blood. For human blood, opsonization was shown to decrease platelet interaction suggesting that complement factors interfere with fungus-to-platelet binding. Our results reveal substantial differences between murine and human whole-blood models infected with C. albicans and thereby demonstrate limitations in the translatability of this ex vivo model between hosts.

Authors: S. Machata, S. Sreekantapuram, Kerstin Hünniger, Oliver Kurzai, C. Dunker, K. Schubert, Wibke Krüger, B. Schulze-Richter, C. Speth, G. Rambach, Ilse Jacobsen

Date Published: 1st Feb 2021

Journal: Front Immunol

Abstract (Expand)

Th cells integrate signals from their microenvironment to acquire distinct specialization programs for efficient clearance of diverse pathogens or for immunotolerance. Ionic signals have recently been demonstrated to affect T cell polarization and function. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was proposed to accumulate in peripheral tissues upon dietary intake and to promote autoimmunity via the Th17 cell axis. Here, we demonstrate that high-NaCl conditions induced a stable, pathogen-specific, antiinflammatory Th17 cell fate in human T cells in vitro. The p38/MAPK pathway, involving NFAT5 and SGK1, regulated FoxP3 and IL-17A expression in high-NaCl conditions. The NaCl-induced acquisition of an antiinflammatory Th17 cell fate was confirmed in vivo in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model, which demonstrated strongly reduced disease symptoms upon transfer of T cells polarized in high-NaCl conditions. However, NaCl was coopted to promote murine and human Th17 cell pathogenicity, if T cell stimulation occurred in a proinflammatory and TGF-beta-low cytokine microenvironment. Taken together, our findings reveal a context-dependent, dichotomous role for NaCl in shaping Th17 cell pathogenicity. NaCl might therefore prove beneficial for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases in combination with cytokine-blocking drugs.

Authors: J. Matthias, S. Heink, F. Picard, J. Zeitrag, A. Kolz, Y. Y. Chao, D. Soll, G. P. de Almeida, E. Glasmacher, Ilse Jacobsen, T. Riedel, A. Peters, S. Floess, J. Huehn, D. Baumjohann, M. Huber, T. Korn, C. E. Zielinski

Date Published: 1st Sep 2020

Journal: J Clin Invest

Abstract (Expand)

Persistent inflammation is a hallmark of many human diseases, including anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) and atherosclerosis. Here, we describe a dominant trigger of inflammation: human serum factor H-related protein FHR1. In vitro, this protein selectively binds to necrotic cells via its N-terminus; in addition, it binds near necrotic glomerular sites of AAV patients and necrotic areas in atherosclerotic plaques. FHR1, but not factor H, FHR2 or FHR3 strongly induces inflammasome NLRP3 in blood-derived human monocytes, which subsequently secrete IL-1beta, TNFalpha, IL-18 and IL-6. FHR1 triggers the phospholipase C-pathway via the G-protein coupled receptor EMR2 independent of complement. Moreover, FHR1 concentrations of AAV patients negatively correlate with glomerular filtration rates and associate with the levels of inflammation and progressive disease. These data highlight an unexpected role for FHR1 during sterile inflammation, may explain why FHR1-deficiency protects against certain diseases, and identifies potential targets for treatment of auto-inflammatory diseases.

Authors: Sarah Irmscher, S. R. Brix, Peter Zipfel, Luke Donald Halder, S. Mutluturk, S. Wulf, E. Girdauskas, H. Reichenspurner, R. A. K. Stahl, Berit Jungnickel, T. Wiech, Peter Zipfel, Christine Skerka

Date Published: 4th Jul 2019

Journal: Nat Commun

Abstract (Expand)

Pneumococcal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children is caused by infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Because endothelial cell damage is a hallmark of HUS, we studied how HUS-inducing pneumococci derived from infant HUS patients during the acute phase disrupt the endothelial layer. HUS pneumococci efficiently bound human plasminogen. These clinical isolates of HUS pneumococci efficiently bound human plasminogen via the bacterial surface proteins Tuf and PspC. When activated to plasmin at the bacterial surface, the active protease degraded fibrinogen and cleaved C3b. Here, we show that PspC is a pneumococcal plasminogen receptor and that plasmin generated on the surface of HUS pneumococci damages endothelial cells, causing endothelial retraction and exposure of the underlying matrix. Thus, HUS pneumococci damage endothelial cells in the blood vessels and disturb local complement homeostasis. Thereby, HUS pneumococci promote a thrombogenic state that drives HUS pathology.

Authors: C. Meinel, G. Sparta, H. M. Dahse, F. Horhold, R. Konig, M. Westermann, S. M. Coldewey, Z. Cseresnyes, Marc Thilo Figge, S. Hammerschmidt, Christine Skerka, Peter Zipfel

Date Published: 17th Jan 2018

Journal: J Infect Dis

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: Although Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are most closely related, both species behave significantly different with respect to morphogenesis and virulence. In order to gain further insight into the divergent routes for morphogenetic adaptation in both species, we investigated qualitative along with quantitative differences in the transcriptomes of both organisms by cDNA deep sequencing. RESULTS: Following genome-associated assembly of sequence reads we were able to generate experimentally verified databases containing 6016 and 5972 genes for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, respectively. About 95% of the transcriptionally active regions (TARs) contain open reading frames while the remaining TARs most likely represent non-coding RNAs. Comparison of our annotations with publically available gene models for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis confirmed approximately 95% of already predicted genes, but also revealed so far unknown novel TARs in both species. Qualitative cross-species analysis of these databases revealed in addition to 5802 orthologs also 399 and 49 species-specific protein coding genes for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, respectively. Furthermore, quantitative transcriptional profiling using RNA-Seq revealed significant differences in the expression of orthologs across both species. We defined a core subset of 84 hyphal-specific genes required for both species, as well as a set of 42 genes that seem to be specifically induced during hyphal morphogenesis in C. albicans. CONCLUSIONS: Species-specific adaptation in C. albicans and C. dubliniensis is governed by individual genetic repertoires but also by altered regulation of conserved orthologs on the transcriptional level.

Authors: C. Grumaz, S. Lorenz, P. Stevens, E. Lindemann, U. Schock, J. Retey, S. Rupp, K. Sohn

Date Published: 4th Apr 2013

Journal: BMC Genomics

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