Abstract (Expand)

Candida albicans is an important human opportunistic fungal pathogen which is frequently found as part of the normal human microbiota. It is well accepted that the fungus interacts with other components of the resident microbiota and that this impacts the commensal or pathogenic outcome of C. albicans colonization. Different types of interactions, including synergism or antagonism, contribute to a complex balance between the multitude of different species. Mixed biofilms of C. albicans and streptococci are a well-studied example of a mutualistic interaction often potentiating the virulence of the individual members. In contrast, other bacteria like lactobacilli are known to antagonize C. albicans, and research has just started elucidating the mechanisms behind these interactions. This scenario is even more complicated by a third player, the host. This review focuses on interactions between C. albicans and gram-positive bacteria whose investigation will without doubt ultimately help understanding C. albicans infections.

Authors: None

Date Published: No date defined

Journal: Cellular Microbiology

Abstract (Expand)

The opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus can cause severe infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Upon infection, A. fumigatus faces the powerful and directly acting immune defense of the human host. The mechanisms on how A. fumigatus evades innate immune attack and complement are still poorly understood. Here, we identify A. fumigatus enolase, AfEno1, which was also characterized as fungal allergen, as a surface ligand for human plasma complement regulators. AfEno1 binds factor H, factor-H-like protein 1 (FHL-1), C4b binding protein (C4BP), and plasminogen. Factor H attaches to AfEno1 via two regions, via short conserved repeats (SCRs) 6-7 and 19-20, and FHL-1 contacts AfEno1 via SCRs 6-7. Both regulators when bound to AfEno1 retain cofactor activity and assist in C3b inactivation. Similarly, the classical pathway regulator C4BP binds to AfEno1 and bound to AfEno1; C4BP assists in C4b inactivation. Plasminogen which binds to AfEno1 via lysine residues is accessible for the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and active plasmin cleaves the chromogenic substrate S2251, degrades fibrinogen, and inactivates C3 and C3b. Plasmin attached to swollen A. fumigatus conidia damages human A549 lung epithelial cells, reduces the cellular metabolic activity, and induces cell retraction, which results in exposure of the extracellular matrix. Thus, A. fumigatus AfEno1 is a moonlighting protein and virulence factor which recruits several human regulators. The attached human regulators allow the fungal pathogen to control complement at the level of C3 and to damage endothelial cell layers and tissue components.

Authors: Prasad Dasari, Naile Koleci, Iordana Shopova, D. Wartenberg, Niklas Beyersdorf, Stefanie Dietrich, A. Sahagun-Ruiz, Marc Thilo Figge, Christine Skerka, Axel Brakhage, Peter Zipfel

Date Published: 12th Dec 2019

Journal: Front Immunol

Abstract (Expand)

Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal pathogen of the human mucosal flora, frequently causing infections. The fungus is responsible for invasive infections in immunocompromised patients that can lead to sepsis. The yeast to hypha transition and invasion of host-tissue represent major determinants in the switch from benign colonizer to invasive pathogen. A comprehensive understanding of the infection process requires analyses at the quantitative level. Utilizing fluorescence microscopy with differential staining, we obtained images of C. albicans undergoing epithelial invasion during a time course of 6 h. An image-based systems biology approach, combining image analysis and mathematical modeling, was applied to quantify the kinetics of hyphae development, hyphal elongation, and epithelial invasion. The automated image analysis facilitates high-throughput screening and provided quantities that allow for the time-resolved characterization of the morphological and invasive state of fungal cells. The interpretation of these data was supported by two mathematical models, a kinetic growth model and a kinetic transition model, that were developed using differential equations. The kinetic growth model describes the increase in hyphal length and revealed that hyphae undergo mass invasion of epithelial cells following primary hypha formation. We also provide evidence that epithelial cells stimulate the production of secondary hyphae by C. albicans. Based on the kinetic transition model, the route of invasion was quantified in the state space of non-invasive and invasive fungal cells depending on their number of hyphae. This analysis revealed that the initiation of hyphae formation represents an ultimate commitment to invasive growth and suggests that in vivo, the yeast to hypha transition must be under exquisitely tight negative regulation to avoid the transition from commensal to pathogen invading the epithelium.

Authors: F. Mech, D. Wilson, T. Lehnert, Bernhard Hube, M. Thilo Figge

Date Published: 20th Nov 2013

Journal: Cytometry A

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