Candida albicans is a major cause of bloodstream infection which may present as sepsis and septic shock - major causes of morbidity and mortality world-wide. After invasion of the pathogen, innate … mechanisms govern the early response. Here, we outline the models used to study these mechanisms and summarize our current understanding of innate immune responses during Candida bloodstream infection. This includes protective immunity as well as harmful responses resulting in Candida induced sepsis. Neutrophilic granulocytes are considered principal effector cells conferring protection and recognize C. albicans mainly via complement receptor 3. They possess a range of effector mechanisms, contributing to elimination of the pathogen. Neutrophil activation is closely linked to complement and modulated by activated mononuclear cells. A thorough understanding of these mechanisms will help in creating an individualized approach to patients suffering from systemic candidiasis and aid in optimizing clinical management.
Date Published: 18th Mar 2015
Human natural killer cells acting as phagocytes against Candida albicans and mounting an inflammatory response that modulates neutrophil antifungal activity
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes with potent cytotoxic activity. Whereas activity of NK cells has been demonstrated against the fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and … Cryptococcus neoformans, little was known about their interaction with Candida albicans. METHODS: Primary human NK cells were isolated from buffy coats, primed with a cytokine cocktail and used for confrontation assays with C. albicans. Interaction was monitored and quantified using live cell imaging, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Human NK cells actively recognized C. albicans, resulting in degranulation and secretion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha . Uniquely, activation of NK cells was triggered by actin-dependent phagocytosis. Antifungal activity of NK cells against C. albicans could be detected and mainly attributed to secreted perforin. However, NK cells were unable to inhibit filamentation of C. albicans. Human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) counteracted the proinflammatory reaction of NK cells by preventing direct contact between NK cells and the fungal pathogen. Activation of PMNs was enhanced in the presence of NK cells, resulting in increased fungicidal activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a unique pattern of NK cell interaction with C. albicans, which involves direct proinflammatory activation and modulation of PMN activity. For the first time, phagocytosis of a pathogen is shown to contribute to NK cell activation.
Date Published: 25th Oct 2013
Journal: J Infect Dis