Comparative Study on Alternative Splicing in Human Fungal Pathogens Suggests Its Involvement During Host Invasion.
Alternative splicing (AS) is an important regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes but only little is known about its impact in fungi. Human fungal pathogens are of high clinical interest causing recurrent … or life-threatening infections. AS can be well-investigated genome-wide and quantitatively with the powerful technology of RNA-Seq. Here, we systematically studied AS in human fungal pathogens based on RNA-Seq data. To do so, we investigated its effect in seven fungi during conditions simulating ex vivo infection processes and during in vitro stress. Genes undergoing AS are species-specific and act independently from differentially expressed genes pointing to an independent mechanism to change abundance and functionality. Candida species stand out with a low number of introns with higher and more varying lengths and more alternative splice sites. Moreover, we identified a functional difference between response to host and other stress conditions: During stress, AS affects more genes and is involved in diverse regulatory functions. In contrast, during response-to-host conditions, genes undergoing AS have membrane functionalities and might be involved in the interaction with the host. We assume that AS plays a crucial regulatory role in pathogenic fungi and is important in both response to host and stress conditions.
Date Published: 19th Oct 2018
Journal: Front Microbiol
More than 80 years after its discovery, penicillin is still a widely used and commercially highly important antibiotic. Here, we analyse the metabolic network of penicillin synthesis in Penicillium … chrysogenum based on the concept of elementary flux modes. In particular, we consider the synthesis of the invariant molecular core of the various subtypes of penicillin and the two major ways of incorporating sulfur: transsulfuration and direct sulfhydrylation. 66 elementary modes producing this invariant core are obtained. These show four different yields with respect to glucose, notably (1/2), 2/5, 1/3, and 2/7, with the highest yield of (1/2) occurring only when direct sulfhydrylation is used and alpha-aminoadipate is completely recycled. In the case of no recycling of this intermediate, we find the maximum yield to be 2/7. We compare these values with earlier literature values. Our analysis provides a systematic overview of the redundancy in penicillin synthesis and a detailed insight into the corresponding routes. Moreover, we derive suggestions for potential knockouts that could increase the average yield.
Date Published: 19th Aug 2015
Journal: Biotechnol Bioeng