Abstract (Expand)

Recent and rapidly evolving progress on high-throughput measurement techniques and computational performance has led to the emergence of new disciplines, such as systems medicine and translational systems biology. At the core of these disciplines lies the desire to produce multiscale models: mathematical models that integrate multiple scales of biological organization, ranging from molecular, cellular and tissue models to organ, whole-organism and population scale models. Using such models, hypotheses can systematically be tested. In this review, we present state-of-the-art multiscale modelling of bacterial and fungal infections, considering both the pathogen and host as well as their interaction. Multiscale modelling of the interactions of bacteria, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the human host is quite advanced. In contrast, models for fungal infections are still in their infancy, in particular regarding infections with the most important human pathogenic fungi, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. We reflect on the current availability of computational approaches for multiscale modelling of host-pathogen interactions and point out current challenges. Finally, we provide an outlook for future requirements of multiscale modelling.

Authors: J. Schleicher, Theresia Conrad, M. Gustafsson, G. Cedersund, Reinhard Guthke, Jörg Linde

Date Published: 10th Feb 2016

Journal: Brief Funct Genomics

Abstract (Expand)

FungiDB ( is a functional genomic resource for pan-fungal genomes that was developed in partnership with the Eukaryotic Pathogen Bioinformatic resource center ( FungiDB uses the same infrastructure and user interface as EuPathDB, which allows for sophisticated and integrated searches to be performed using an intuitive graphical system. The current release of FungiDB contains genome sequence and annotation from 18 species spanning several fungal classes, including the Ascomycota classes, Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, Saccharomycetes and the Basidiomycota orders, Pucciniomycetes and Tremellomycetes, and the basal 'Zygomycete' lineage Mucormycotina. Additionally, FungiDB contains cell cycle microarray data, hyphal growth RNA-sequence data and yeast two hybrid interaction data. The underlying genomic sequence and annotation combined with functional data, additional data from the FungiDB standard analysis pipeline and the ability to leverage orthology provides a powerful resource for in silico experimentation.

Authors: Jason E Stajich, Todd Harris, Brian P Brunk, John Brestelli, Steve Fischer, Omar S Harb, Jessica C Kissinger, Wei Li, Vishal Nayak, Deborah F Pinney, Chris J Stoeckert, David S Roos

Date Published: 7th Nov 2011

Journal: Nucleic Acids Res.

Abstract (Expand)

FungiFun assigns functional annotations to fungal genes or proteins and performs gene set enrichment analysis. Based on three different classification methods (FunCat, GO and KEGG), FungiFun categorizes genes and proteins for several fungal species on different levels of annotation detail. It is web-based and accessible to users without any programming skills. FungiFun is the first tool offering gene set enrichment analysis including the FunCat categorization. Two biological datasets for Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans were analyzed using FungiFun, providing an overview of the usage and functions of the tool. FungiFun is freely accessible at

Authors: S. Priebe, Jörg Linde, D. Albrecht, Reinhard Guthke, A. A. Brakhage

Date Published: 10th Nov 2010

Journal: Fungal Genet Biol

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