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43 Publications visible to you, out of a total of 43

Abstract (Expand)

Protein kinases play a crucial role in regulating cellular processes such as growth, proliferation, environmental adaptation and stress responses. Serine-arginine (SR) protein kinases are highly conserved in eukaryotes and regulate fundamental processes such as constitutive and alternative splicing, mRNA processing and ion homeostasis. The Candida albicans genome encodes two (Sky1, Sky2) and the Candida glabrata genome has one homolog (Sky1) of the human SR protein kinase 1, but their functions have not yet been investigated. We used deletion strains of the corresponding genes in both fungi to study their cellular functions. C. glabrata and C. albicans strains lacking SKY1 exhibited higher resistance to osmotic stress and toxic polyamine concentrations, similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae sky1Delta mutants. Deletion of SKY2 in C. albicans resulted in impaired utilization of various dipeptides as the sole nitrogen source. Subsequent phosphoproteomic analysis identified the di- and tripeptide transporter Ptr22 as a potential Sky2 substrate. Sky2 seems to be involved in Ptr22 regulation since overexpression of PTR22 in the sky2Delta mutant restored the ability to grow on dipeptides and made the cells more susceptible to the dipeptide antifungals Polyoxin D and Nikkomycin Z. Altogether, our results demonstrate that C. albicans and C. glabrata Sky1 protein kinases are functionally similar to Sky1 in S. cerevisiae, whereas C. albicans Sky2, a unique kinase of the CTG clade, likely regulates dipeptide uptake via Ptr22.

Authors: P. Brandt, F. Gerwien, L. Wagner, T. Kruger, B. Ramirez-Zavala, M. H. Mirhakkak, S. Schauble, O. Kniemeyer, G. Panagiotou, A. A. Brakhage, J. Morschhauser, S. Vylkova

Date Published: 23rd May 2022

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are the 2 most prevalent Candida species causing bloodstream infections. Patterns of innate immune activation triggered by the 2 fungi differ considerably. METHODS: To analyze human natural killer (NK) cell activation by both species, we performed ex vivo whole-blood infection assays and confrontation assays with primary human NK cells. RESULTS: C. albicans was a stronger activator for isolated human NK cells than C. glabrata. In contrast, activation of blood NK cells, characterized by an upregulated surface exposure of early activation antigen CD69 and death receptor ligand TRAIL, as well as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion, was more pronounced during C. glabrata infection. NK cell activation in blood is mediated by humoral mediators released by other immune cells and does not depend on direct activation by fungal cells. Cross-talk between Candida-confronted monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) and NK cells resulted in the same NK activation phenotype as NK cells in human blood. Blocking experiments and cytokine substitution identified interleukin-12 as a critical mediator in regulation of primary NK cells by moDC. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of human NK cells in response to Candida in human blood mainly occurs indirectly by mediators released from monocytic cells.

Authors: A. Marolda, K. Hunniger, S. Bottcher, W. Vivas, J. Loffler, M. T. Figge, O. Kurzai

Date Published: 11th Jun 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus are of particular interest for biotechnological applications due to their natural capacity to secrete carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) that target plant biomass. The presence of easily metabolizable sugars such as glucose, whose concentrations increase during plant biomass hydrolysis, results in the repression of CAZy-encoding genes in a process known as carbon catabolite repression (CCR), which is undesired for the purpose of large-scale enzyme production. To date, the C2H2 transcription factor CreA has been described as the major CC repressor in Aspergillus spp., although little is known about the role of posttranslational modifications in this process. In this work, phosphorylation sites were identified by mass spectrometry on Aspergillus nidulans CreA, and subsequently, the previously identified but uncharacterized site S262, the characterized site S319, and the newly identified sites S268 and T308 were chosen to be mutated to nonphosphorylatable residues before their effect on CCR was investigated. Sites S262, S268, and T308 are important for CreA protein accumulation and cellular localization, DNA binding, and repression of enzyme activities. In agreement with a previous study, site S319 was not important for several here-tested phenotypes but is key for CreA degradation and induction of enzyme activities. All sites were shown to be important for glycogen and trehalose metabolism. This study highlights the importance of CreA phosphorylation sites for the regulation of CCR. These sites are interesting targets for biotechnological strain engineering without the need to delete essential genes, which could result in undesired side effects.IMPORTANCE In filamentous fungi, the transcription factor CreA controls carbohydrate metabolism through the regulation of genes encoding enzymes required for the use of alternative carbon sources. In this work, phosphorylation sites were identified on Aspergillus nidulans CreA, and subsequently, the two newly identified sites S268 and T308, the previously identified but uncharacterized site S262, and the previously characterized site S319 were chosen to be mutated to nonphosphorylatable residues before their effect on CCR was characterized. Sites S262, S268, and T308 are important for CreA protein accumulation and cellular localization, DNA binding, and repression of enzyme activities. In agreement with a previous study, site S319 is not important for several here-tested phenotypes but is key for CreA degradation and induction of enzyme activities. This work characterized novel CreA phosphorylation sites under carbon catabolite-repressing conditions and showed that they are crucial for CreA protein turnover, control of carbohydrate utilization, and biotechnologically relevant enzyme production.

Authors: L. J. de Assis, L. P. Silva, O. Bayram, P. Dowling, O. Kniemeyer, T. Kruger, A. A. Brakhage, Y. Chen, L. Dong, K. Tan, K. H. Wong, L. N. A. Ries, G. H. Goldman

Date Published: 5th Jan 2021

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Alternative splicing (AS) is an important regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes but only little is known about its impact in fungi. Human fungal pathogens are of high clinical interest causing recurrent or life-threatening infections. AS can be well-investigated genome-wide and quantitatively with the powerful technology of RNA-Seq. Here, we systematically studied AS in human fungal pathogens based on RNA-Seq data. To do so, we investigated its effect in seven fungi during conditions simulating ex vivo infection processes and during in vitro stress. Genes undergoing AS are species-specific and act independently from differentially expressed genes pointing to an independent mechanism to change abundance and functionality. Candida species stand out with a low number of introns with higher and more varying lengths and more alternative splice sites. Moreover, we identified a functional difference between response to host and other stress conditions: During stress, AS affects more genes and is involved in diverse regulatory functions. In contrast, during response-to-host conditions, genes undergoing AS have membrane functionalities and might be involved in the interaction with the host. We assume that AS plays a crucial regulatory role in pathogenic fungi and is important in both response to host and stress conditions.

Authors: P. Sieber, K. Voigt, P. Kammer, S. Brunke, S. Schuster, J. Linde

Date Published: 19th Oct 2018

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Rhinovirus (RV) and influenza virus are the most frequently detected respiratory viruses among adult patients with community acquired pneumonia. Previous clinical studies have identified major differences in the clinical presentations and inflammatory or immune response during these infections. A systematic transcriptomic analysis directly comparing influenza and RV is lacking. Here, we sought to compare the transcriptomic response to these viral infections. Human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells were infected with contemporary clinical isolates of RV, influenza A virus (IAV), or influenza B virus (IBV). Host gene expression was determined using RNA-seq. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with respect to mock-infected cells were identified using the overlapping gene-set of four different statistical models. Transcriptomic analysis showed that RV-infected cells have a more blunted host response with fewer DEGs than IAV or IBV-infected cells. IFNL1 and CXCL10 were among the most upregulated DEGs during RV, IAV, and IBV infection. Other DEGs that were highly expressed for all 3 viruses were mainly genes related to type I or type III interferons (RSAD2, IDO1) and chemokines (CXCL11). Notably, ICAM5, a known receptor for enterovirus D68, was highly expressed during RV infection only. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) confirmed that pathways associated with interferon response, innate immunity, or regulation of inflammatory response, were most perturbed for all three viruses. Network analysis showed that steroid-related pathways were enriched. Taken together, our data using contemporary virus strains suggests that genes related to interferon and chemokine predominated the host response associated with RV, IAV, and IBV infection. Several highly expressed genes, especially ICAM5 which is preferentially-induced during RV infection, deserve further investigation.

Authors: T. K. Dissanayake, S. Schauble, M. H. Mirhakkak, W. L. Wu, A. C. Ng, C. C. Y. Yip, A. G. Lopez, T. Wolf, M. L. Yeung, K. H. Chan, K. Y. Yuen, G. Panagiotou, K. K. To

Date Published: 28th Aug 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Patients suffering from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are susceptible to deadly secondary fungal infections such as COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis and COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. Despite this clinical observation, direct experimental evidence for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-driven alterations of antifungal immunity is scarce. Using an ex-vivo whole blood stimulation assay, we challenged blood from twelve COVID-19 patients with Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus arrhizus antigens and studied the expression of activation, maturation, and exhaustion markers, as well as cytokine secretion. Compared to healthy controls, T-helper cells from COVID-19 patients displayed increased expression levels of the exhaustion marker PD-1 and weakened A. fumigatus- and R. arrhizus-induced activation. While baseline secretion of proinflammatory cytokines was massively elevated, whole blood from COVID-19 patients elicited diminished release of T-cellular (e.g., IFN-gamma, IL-2) and innate immune cell-derived (e.g., CXCL9, CXCL10) cytokines in response to A. fumigatus and R. arrhizus antigens. Additionally, samples from COVID-19 patients showed deficient granulocyte activation by mold antigens and reduced fungal killing capacity of neutrophils. These features of weakened anti-mold immune responses were largely decoupled from COVID-19 severity, the time elapsed since diagnosis of COVID-19, and recent corticosteroid uptake, suggesting that impaired anti-mold defense is a common denominator of the underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection. Taken together, these results expand our understanding of the immune predisposition to post-viral mold infections and could inform future studies of immunotherapeutic strategies to prevent and treat fungal superinfections in COVID-19 patients.

Authors: B. Tappe, C. D. Lauruschkat, L. Strobel, J. Pantaleon Garcia, O. Kurzai, S. Rebhan, S. Kraus, E. Pfeuffer-Jovic, L. Bussemer, L. Possler, M. Held, K. Hunniger, O. Kniemeyer, S. Schauble, A. A. Brakhage, G. Panagiotou, P. L. White, H. Einsele, J. Loffler, S. Wurster

Date Published: 2nd Sep 2022

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

OBJECTIVE: The biological interpretation of gene expression measurements is a challenging task. While ordination methods are routinely used to identify clusters of samples or co-expressed genes, these methods do not take sample or gene annotations into account. We aim to provide a tool that allows users of all backgrounds to assess and visualize the intrinsic correlation structure of complex annotated gene expression data and discover the covariates that jointly affect expression patterns. RESULTS: The Bioconductor package covRNA provides a convenient and fast interface for testing and visualizing complex relationships between sample and gene covariates mediated by gene expression data in an entirely unsupervised setting. The relationships between sample and gene covariates are tested by statistical permutation tests and visualized by ordination. The methods are inspired by the fourthcorner and RLQ analyses used in ecological research for the analysis of species abundance data, that we modified to make them suitable for the distributional characteristics of both, RNA-Seq read counts and microarray intensities, and to provide a high-performance parallelized implementation for the analysis of large-scale gene expression data on multi-core computational systems. CovRNA provides additional modules for unsupervised gene filtering and plotting functions to ensure a smooth and coherent analysis workflow.

Authors: L. Urban, C. W. Remmele, M. Dittrich, R. F. Schwarz, T. Muller

Date Published: 24th Feb 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

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