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Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is a last-resort treatment to induce substantial and sustained weight loss in cases of severe obesity. This anatomical rearrangement affects the intestinal microbiota, but so far, little information is available on how it interferes with microbial functionality and microbial-host interactions independently of weight loss. METHODS: A rat model was employed where the RYGB-surgery cohort is compared to sham-operated controls which were kept at a matched body weight by food restriction. We investigated the microbial taxonomy and functional activity using 16S rRNA amplicon gene sequencing, metaproteomics, and metabolomics on samples collected from theileum, the cecum, and the colon, and separately analysed the lumen and mucus-associated microbiota. RESULTS: Altered gut architecture in RYGB increased the relative occurrence of Actinobacteria, especially Bifidobacteriaceae and Proteobacteria, while in general, Firmicutes were decreased although Streptococcaceae and Clostridium perfringens were observed at relative higher abundances independent of weight loss. A decrease of conjugated and secondary bile acids was observed in the RYGB-gut lumen. The arginine biosynthesis pathway in the microbiota was altered, as indicated by the changes in the abundance of upstream metabolites and enzymes, resulting in lower levels of arginine and higher levels of aspartate in the colon after RYGB. CONCLUSION: The anatomical rearrangement in RYGB affects microbiota composition and functionality as well as changes in amino acid and bile acid metabolism independently of weight loss. The shift in the taxonomic structure of the microbiota after RYGB may be mediated by the resulting change in the composition of the bile acid pool in the gut and by changes in the composition of nutrients in the gut. Video abstract.

Authors: S. B. Haange, N. Jehmlich, U. Krugel, C. Hintschich, D. Wehrmann, M. Hankir, F. Seyfried, J. Froment, T. Hubschmann, S. Muller, D. K. Wissenbach, K. Kang, C. Buettner, G. Panagiotou, M. Noll, U. Rolle-Kampczyk, W. Fenske, M. von Bergen

Date Published: 7th Feb 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic human pathogen, frequently infects the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis and is one of the most common causes of infectious-disease death in immunocompromised patients. Here, we construct 252 strain-specific, genome-scale metabolic models of this important fungal pathogen to study and better understand the metabolic component of its pathogenic versatility. The models show that 23.1% of A. fumigatus metabolic reactions are not conserved across strains and are mainly associated with amino acid, nucleotide, and nitrogen metabolism. Profiles of non-conserved reactions and growth-supporting reaction fluxes are sufficient to differentiate strains, for example by environmental or clinical origin. In addition, shotgun metagenomics analysis of sputum from 40 cystic fibrosis patients (15 females, 25 males) before and after diagnosis with an A. fumigatus colonization suggests that the fungus shapes the lung microbiome towards a more beneficial fungal growth environment associated with aromatic amino acid availability and the shikimate pathway. Our findings are starting points for the development of drugs or microbiome intervention strategies targeting fungal metabolic needs for survival and colonization in the non-native environment of the human lung.

Authors: M. H. Mirhakkak, X. Chen, Y. Ni, T. Heinekamp, T. Sae-Ong, L. L. Xu, O. Kurzai, A. E. Barber, A. A. Brakhage, S. Boutin, S. Schauble, G. Panagiotou

Date Published: 20th Jul 2023

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Exercise is an effective strategy for diabetes management but is limited by the phenomenon of exercise resistance (i.e., the lack of or the adverse response to exercise on metabolic health). Here, in 39 medication-naive men with prediabetes, we found that exercise-induced alterations in the gut microbiota correlated closely with improvements in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity ( entry NCT03240978). The microbiome of responders exhibited an enhanced capacity for biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids and catabolism of branched-chain amino acids, whereas those of non-responders were characterized by increased production of metabolically detrimental compounds. Fecal microbial transplantation from responders, but not non-responders, mimicked the effects of exercise on alleviation of insulin resistance in obese mice. Furthermore, a machine-learning algorithm integrating baseline microbial signatures accurately predicted personalized glycemic response to exercise in an additional 30 subjects. These findings raise the possibility of maximizing the benefits of exercise by targeting the gut microbiota.

Authors: Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Ni, C. K. Y. Cheung, K. S. L. Lam, Y. Wang, Z. Xia, D. Ye, J. Guo, M. A. Tse, G. Panagiotou, A. Xu

Date Published: 7th Jan 2020

Publication Type: Not specified

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