Abstract (Expand)

During infection, the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans undergoes a yeast-to-hypha transition, secretes numerous proteins for invasion of host tissues, and modulates the host's immune response. Little is known about the interplay of C. albicans secreted proteins and the host adaptive immune system. Here, we applied a combined 2D gel- and LC-MS/MS-based approach for the characterization of C. albicans extracellular proteins during the yeast-to-hypha transition, which led to a comprehensive C. albicans secretome map. The serological responses to C. albicans extracellular proteins were investigated by a 2D-immunoblotting approach combined with MS for protein identification. On the basis of the screening of sera from candidemia and three groups of noncandidemia patients, a core set of 19 immunodominant antibodies against secreted proteins of C. albicans was identified, seven of which represent potential diagnostic markers for candidemia (Xog1, Lip4, Asc1, Met6, Tsa1, Tpi1, and Prx1). Intriguingly, some secreted, strongly glycosylated protein antigens showed high cross-reactivity with sera from noncandidemia control groups. Enzymatic deglycosylation of proteins secreted from hyphae significantly impaired sera antibody recognition. Furthermore, deglycosylation of the recombinantly produced, secreted aspartyl protease Sap6 confirmed a significant contribution of glycan epitopes to the recognition of Sap6 by antibodies in patient's sera.

Authors: T. Luo, Thomas Krüger, U. Knupfer, Lydia Kasper, N. Wielsch, Bernhard Hube, A. Kortgen, Michael Bauer, E. J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis, G. Dimopoulos, Axel Brakhage, Olaf Kniemeyer

Date Published: 5th Aug 2016

Journal: J Proteome Res

Abstract (Expand)

OBJECTIVES: Candida albicans is an important fungal pathogen that can cause life-threatening disseminated infections. To determine the efficacy of therapy in murine models, a determination of renal fungal burden as cfu is commonly used. However, this approach provides only a snapshot of the current situation in an individual animal and cryptic sites of infection may easily be missed. Thus, we aimed to develop real-time non-invasive imaging to monitor infection in vivo. METHODS: Bioluminescent C. albicans reporter strains were developed based on a bioinformatical approach for codon optimization. The reporter strains were analysed in vitro and in vivo in the murine model of systemic candidiasis. RESULTS: Reporter strains allowed the in vivo monitoring of infection and a determination of fungal burden, with a high correlation between bioluminescence and cfu count. We confirmed the kidney as the main target organ but additionally observed the translocation of C. albicans to the urinary bladder. The treatment of infected mice with caspofungin and fluconazole significantly improved the clinical outcome and clearance of C. albicans from the kidneys; however, unexpectedly, viable fungal cells persisted in the gall bladder. Fungi were secreted with bile and detected in the faeces, implicating the gall bladder as a reservoir for colonization by C. albicans after antifungal therapy. Bile extracts significantly decreased the susceptibility of C. albicans to various antifungals in vitro, thereby probably contributing to its persistence. CONCLUSIONS: Using in vivo imaging, we identified cryptic sites of infection and persistence of C. albicans in the gall bladder during otherwise effective antifungal treatment. Bile appears to directly interfere with antifungal activity.

Authors: Ilse Jacobsen, A. Luttich, Oliver Kurzai, Bernhard Hube, Matthias Brock

Date Published: 20th Jun 2014

Journal: J Antimicrob Chemother

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