Immunoproteomic Analysis of Antibody Responses to Extracellular Proteins of Candida albicans Revealing the Importance of Glycosylation for Antigen Recognition.
During infection, the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans undergoes a yeast-to-hypha transition, secretes numerous proteins for invasion of host tissues, and modulates the host's immune response. … Little is known about the interplay of C. albicans secreted proteins and the host adaptive immune system. Here, we applied a combined 2D gel- and LC-MS/MS-based approach for the characterization of C. albicans extracellular proteins during the yeast-to-hypha transition, which led to a comprehensive C. albicans secretome map. The serological responses to C. albicans extracellular proteins were investigated by a 2D-immunoblotting approach combined with MS for protein identification. On the basis of the screening of sera from candidemia and three groups of noncandidemia patients, a core set of 19 immunodominant antibodies against secreted proteins of C. albicans was identified, seven of which represent potential diagnostic markers for candidemia (Xog1, Lip4, Asc1, Met6, Tsa1, Tpi1, and Prx1). Intriguingly, some secreted, strongly glycosylated protein antigens showed high cross-reactivity with sera from noncandidemia control groups. Enzymatic deglycosylation of proteins secreted from hyphae significantly impaired sera antibody recognition. Furthermore, deglycosylation of the recombinantly produced, secreted aspartyl protease Sap6 confirmed a significant contribution of glycan epitopes to the recognition of Sap6 by antibodies in patient's sera.
Date Published: 5th Aug 2016
Journal: J Proteome Res
Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic filamentous fungus and also the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen of humans. Depending on the host's immune status, the variety of diseases caused by … A. fumigatus ranges from allergies in immunocompetent hosts to life-threatening invasive infections in patients with impaired immunity. In contrast to the majority of other Aspergillus species, which are in most cases nonpathogenic, A. fumigatus features an armory of virulence determinants to establish an infection. For example, A. fumigatus is able to evade the human complement system by binding or degrading complement regulators. Furthermore, the fungus interferes with lung epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophil granulocytes to prevent killing by these immune cells. This chapter summarizes the different strategies of A. fumigatus to manipulate the immune response. We also discuss the potential impact of recent advances in immunoproteomics to improve diagnosis and therapy of an A. fumigatus infection.
Date Published: 18th Nov 2014
Journal: Semin Immunopathol